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    Although inflammation is a well-characterized process in mammals, few studies have dealt with the mechanisms involved in this process in fish. The present study evaluated the expression of inflammation-related genes in the skin of fish injected with carrageenin, which has previously been used in inflammatory models in mammals. In our case, fish were injected subcutaneously with PBS (as control) or carrageenin (1%), and skin samples from the injection site were collected 1.5, 3 and 6 h post-injection. The gene expression of inflammatory markers (csfr1, mhc-ii and phox40), several pro-inflammatory cytokines (il1b, tnfa, il6, il8 and il18) and other molecules related (such as myd88 and c-rel) were up-regulated at 1.5 and 3 h in fish injected with carrageenin compared with control levels. By contrast, the gene expression of anti-inflammatory molecules (nlrx1, nlrc5 isoform 1, ctsd and ctss) was down-regulated in fish injected with carrageenin and sampled 3 h post injection, again compared to the gene expression in control fish. According to our results, carrageenin can be considered not only a good stimulator to study skin inflammation in gilthead seabream but also this method might be use to study the modulation of fish inflammatory process caused by internal or external factors. Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.


    Jose Carlos Campos-Sánchez, Javier Mayor-Lafuente, Daniel González-Silvera, Francisco A Guardiola, María Ángeles Esteban. Acute inflammatory response in the skin of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) caused by carrageenin. Fish & shellfish immunology. 2021 Dec;119:623-634

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    PMID: 34656758

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