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    Mitochondria of all tissues convert various metabolic substrates into two forms of energy: ATP and heat. Historically, the primary focus of research in mitochondrial bioenergetics was on the mechanisms of ATP production, while mitochondrial thermogenesis received significantly less attention. Nevertheless, mitochondrial heat production is crucial for the maintenance of body temperature, regulation of the pace of metabolism, and prevention of oxidative damage to mitochondria and the cell. In addition, mitochondrial thermogenesis has gained significance as a pharmacological target for treating metabolic disorders. Mitochondria produce heat as the result of H+ leak across their inner membrane. This review provides a critical assessment of the current field of mitochondrial H+ leak and thermogenesis, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms involved in the function and regulation of uncoupling protein 1 and the ADP/ATP carrier, the two proteins that mediate mitochondrial H+ leak.

    Citation

    Ambre M Bertholet, Yuriy Kirichok. Mitochondrial H+ Leak and Thermogenesis. Annual review of physiology. 2022 Feb 10;84:381-407

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    PMID: 34758268

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