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The transfer of homeoprotein transcription factors is at the origin of the discovery of Penetratin, one of the first transduction peptides allowing for the addressing of hydrophilic cargoes to the cell cytoplasm and nucleus. Beyond this important technological application, homeoprotein transduction has now been confirmed for more than 150 members of this family, and represents an intriguing mode of signaling for which actual in vivo functions are known for a handful of these proteins. Because homeoproteins are expressed in all eukaryotes, and their intercellular transfer occurs both in plants and animals, it is likely that this signaling activity appeared before the separation between plants, fungi, and animals, and is therefore very ancient. These aspects are discussed in the present review, with an accent placed on evolution and on the comparison of homeoprotein signaling between species belonging to distinct phyla. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


Alain Prochiantz, Ariel A Di Nardo. Shuttling Homeoproteins and Their Biological Significance. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2022;2383:33-44

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PMID: 34766280

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