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The spectrum of neurological diseases related to ATP1A3 gene mutations is highly heterogeneous and exhibits different phenotypes. Phenotype overlaps, including alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC), early infantile epileptic encephalopathy, and rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP), can also occur at extremely low incidences. Currently, over 90 types of pathogenic mutations have been identified in ATP1A3. The family of a 2-year-11-month-old proband with AHC was recruited for this clinical investigation. The proband was screened for candidate mutation gene sites using next-generation sequencing and target-region capture technology. Sanger sequencing was used to identify carriers among family members. The mother of the proband with AHC was diagnosed with dystonia (later diagnosed as RDP). The biochemical and immune indices of the proband and the mother were not abnormal. Moreover, brain imaging of the proband revealed no significant abnormalities. However, the electroencephalogram of the mother was mildly abnormal, with no spike wave discharge. Brain MRI revealed slight cerebellar atrophy. Electromyography revealed neurogenic damage, with a decrease in the conduction velocity of the left ulnar and radial nerves. Based on the sequencing data, both the proband and her mother carried c.823G > C p. (Ala275Pro) heterozygotes; other family members were not identified as carriers. With a PolyPhen-2 score of 0.997 and SIFT score of 0.001, this mutation can be considered damaging. Family genotype-phenotype correlation analysis revealed that the phenotype and gene mutation were co-segregated, suggesting that it may be a pathogenic mutation. © 2021. Fondazione Società Italiana di Neurologia.

Citation

Wen Wei, Xiu-Fen Zheng, Dan-Dan Ruan, Yu-Mian Gan, Yan-Ping Zhang, Ying Chen, Xin-Fu Lin, Fa-Qiang Tang, Jie-Wei Luo, Yun-Fei Li. Different phenotypes of neurological diseases, including alternating hemiplegia of childhood and rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism, caused by de novo ATP1A3 mutation in a family. Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology. 2022 Apr;43(4):2555-2563

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PMID: 34783933

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