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    The eukaryotic 43S pre-initiation complex (PIC) containing Met-tRNAiMet in a ternary complex (TC) with eIF2-GTP scans the mRNA leader for an AUG codon in favorable "Kozak" context. AUG recognition triggers rearrangement of the PIC from an open conformation to a closed state with more tightly bound Met-tRNAiMet. Yeast ribosomal protein uS5/Rps2 is located at the mRNA entry channel of the 40S subunit in the vicinity of mRNA nucleotides downstream from the AUG codon or rRNA residues that communicate with the decoding center, but its participation in start codon recognition was unknown. We found that nonlethal substitutions of conserved Rps2 residues in the entry channel reduce bulk translation initiation and increase discrimination against poor initiation codons. A subset of these substitutions suppress initiation at near-cognate UUG start codons in a yeast mutant with elevated UUG initiation, and also increase discrimination against AUG codons in suboptimal Kozak context, thus resembling previously described substitutions in uS3/Rps3 at the 40S entry channel or initiation factors eIF1 and eIF1A. In contrast, other Rps2 substitutions selectively discriminate against either near-cognate UUG codons, or poor Kozak context of an AUG or UUG start codon. These findings suggest that different Rps2 residues are involved in distinct mechanisms involved in discriminating against different features of poor initiation sites in vivo. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Genetics Society of America 2021. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.


    Jinsheng Dong, Alan G Hinnebusch. uS5/Rps2 residues at the 40S ribosome entry channel enhance initiation at suboptimal start codons in vivo. Genetics. 2022 Jan 04;220(1)

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    PMID: 34791232

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