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Viperin is known to exhibit activity against RNA viral infection. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus that causes severe loss in aquaculture species. Susceptible species include redlip mullets (Liza haematocheila), which has become an economically important euryhaline mugilid species in offshore aquaculture along the west coast of Korea. Although interferon-stimulated genes are suspected to act against VHSV, specific pathways or mechanisms of these antiviral actions in redlip mullets have not yet been established. In silico studies of the mullet viperin (Lhrsad2) revealed an S-adenosyl methionine binding conserved domain containing the 77CNYKCGFC84 sequence. In the tissue distribution, the highest levels of lhrsad2 expression were observed in the blood. When injected with poly(I:C), an approximately 17-fold upregulation (compared to the control) of viperin was detected in the blood after 24 h. Furthermore, non-viral immune stimuli, including Lactococcus garvieae (L. garvieae) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), that were injected into redlip mullets were not found to induce considerable levels of viperin expression. Subcellular analysis revealed that Lhrsad2 localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To investigate Lhrsad2's antiviral effects against VHSV, cells overexpressing lhrsad2 were infected with VHSV, and then the viral titer and viral gene expression were analyzed. Both assays revealed the potential of Lhrsad2 to significantly reduce VHSV transcription and replication. In brief, the current study illustrates the remarkable ability of viperin to weaken VHSV in redlip mullet. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


K P Madushani, K A S N Shanaka, Hyerim Yang, Chaehyeon Lim, Taehyug Jeong, M D Neranjan Tharuka, Jehee Lee. Molecular characterization, expression profile, and antiviral activity of redlip mullet (Liza haematocheila) viperin. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology. 2022 Feb-Mar;258:110699

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PMID: 34801710

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