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Osteochondromas are cartilage-capped tumors that arise near growing physes and are the most common benign bone tumor in children. Osteochondromas can lead to skeletal deformity, pain, loss of motion, and neurovascular compression. Currently, surgery is the only available treatment for symptomatic osteochondromas. Osteochondroma mouse models have been developed to understand the pathology and the origin of osteochondromas and develop therapeutic drugs. Several cartilage regulatory pathways have been implicated in the development of osteochondromas, such as bone morphogenetic protein, hedgehog, and WNT/β-catenin signaling. Retinoic acid receptor-γ is an important regulator of endochondral bone formation. Selective agonists for retinoic acid receptor-γ, such as palovarotene, have been investigated as drugs for inhibition of ectopic endochondral ossification, including osteochondromas. This review discusses the signaling pathways involved in osteochondroma pathogenesis and their possible interactions with the retinoid pathway. Copyright © 2021 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Sonia Arely Garcia, Vincent Y Ng, Masahiro Iwamoto, Motomi Enomoto-Iwamoto. Osteochondroma Pathogenesis: Mouse Models and Mechanistic Insights into Interactions with Retinoid Signaling. The American journal of pathology. 2021 Dec;191(12):2042-2051

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PMID: 34809786

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