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    Bone fragility fractures remain an important worldwide health and economic problem due to increased morbidity and mortality. The current methods for predicting fractures are largely based on the measurement of bone mineral density and the utilization of mathematical risk calculators based on clinical risk factors for bone fragility. Despite these approaches, many bone fractures remain undiagnosed. Therefore, current research is focused on the identification of new factors such as bone turnover markers (BTM) for risk calculation. BTM are a group of proteins and peptides released during bone remodeling that can be found in serum or urine. They derive from bone resorptive and formative processes mediated by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively. Potential use of BTM in monitoring these phenomenon and therefore bone fracture risk is limited by physiologic and pathophysiologic factors that influence BTM. These limitations in predicting fractures explain why their inclusion in clinical guidelines remains limited despite the large number of studies examining BTM. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Lisa Di Medio, Maria Luisa Brandi. Advances in bone turnover markers. Advances in clinical chemistry. 2021;105:101-140

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    PMID: 34809826

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