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Pyrethroids are the most widely used insecticides for the control of malaria transmitting Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes and rapid increase in resistance to this insecticide class is of major concern. Pyrethroids target the Voltage Gated Sodium Channels (VGSCs), that have a key role in the normal function of the mosquitoes' nervous system. VGSC mutations L995F and L995S have long been associated with pyrethroid resistance and screening for their presence is routine in insecticide resistance management programs. Recently, a VGSC haplotype containing two amino acid substitutions associated with resistance in other species, V402L and I1527T, was identified. These two VGSC mutations are found in tight linkage and are mutually exclusive to the classical L995F/S mutations. We identify the presence of the V402L-I1527T haplotype in resistant An. coluzzii colonized strains and in field populations from Burkina Faso, at frequencies higher than previously reported; in some cases almost reaching fixation. Functional validation of V402L in insecticide resistance using a CRISPR/Cas9 genome modified line showed that it confers reduced mortality after exposure to all tested pyrethroids and DDT, but at lower levels compared to L995F. In contrast to L995F however, no fitness costs were identified for mosquitoes carrying V402L under laboratory conditions. The V402L substitution confers pyrethroid resistance in An. gambiae in the absence of any other VGSC substitution and/or alternative resistance mechanisms. The lower fitness cost associated with this kdr mutation may provide a selective advantage over the classical kdr in some settings and genotyping at this locus should be added in the list of resistant alleles for routine screening. © 2021 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Jessica Williams, Ruth Cowlishaw, Antoine Sanou, Hilary Ranson, Linda Grigoraki. In vivo functional validation of the V402L voltage gated sodium channel mutation in the malaria vector An. gambiae. Pest management science. 2022 Mar;78(3):1155-1163

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PMID: 34821465

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