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Double emulsions (DEs), known as emulsions of emulsions, are dispersion systems in which the droplets of one dispersed liquid are further dispersed in another liquid, producing double-layered liquid droplets. These systems are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries due to their ability to co-encapsulate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic bioactive compounds. However, they are sensitive and unstable and their controlled release is challenging. In this study, first, the stability of DEs and their release mechanisms are reviewed. Then, the factors affecting their stability, and the release of bioactive compounds are studied. Finally, modeling of the release in DEs is discussed. This information can be useful to optimize the formulation of DEs in order to utilize them in different industries. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Fatemeh Heidari, Seid Mahdi Jafari, Aman Mohammad Ziaiifar, Narjes Malekjani. Stability and release mechanisms of double emulsions loaded with bioactive compounds; a critical review. Advances in colloid and interface science. 2022 Jan;299:102567

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PMID: 34839180

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