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    Hyphenated techniques combining chromatographic and spectroscopic methods are the gold standard to effectively handle the emerging challenges in the analysis of unknown chemical components in mixtures, and in this regard the coupling of liquid chromatography to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (LC-FTIR) is no exception. While earlier attempts to couple LC to IR spectroscopy relied almost entirely on offline techniques, clear motivations for implementing online LC-FTIR instrumentation emerged from the need for shorter analysis time, a higher degree of automation and sample throughput, better reproducibility, and reduced contamination. Most recent designs of LC-FTIR concepts have aimed to combine the advantages of both approaches by means of a solvent-elimination interface. The hyphenated instrumentation and method presented in this research are based on a pneumatically assisted LC-FTIR interface, relying on a small-scale self-regulating spray dryer to attain desolvation of the LC eluent stream while retaining the spatial and temporal resolution of the dissolved substrates. Focused deposition of the dried analytes occurs onto a ZnSe disc for continuous transmission mid-IR analysis at a resolution of 4 cm-1. The optimization of the LC-FTIR technique is discussed in terms of interface parameters, limits of detection, and limits of quantification for a pair of furanocoumarin isomers differing in the position (linear or angular type) of the furan ring fused to coumarin. Finally, confident discrimination between the two closely related molecules was attained by matching the experimental FTIR spectra in a dedicated library. The quality match factors obtained were higher than 99% for both molecules. The limit of identification (LOI) was determined experimentally as the minimum amount of substance yielding a library-searchable IR spectrum (affording a quality match factor higher than 90%). Specifically, LOI of 0.6 μg and 1.25 μg was determined for psoralen and angelicin, respectively. © 2021. Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


    Tania Maria Grazia Salerno, Carmelo Coppolino, Paola Donato, Luigi Mondello. The online coupling of liquid chromatography to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a solute-deposition interface: A proof of concept. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. 2022 Jan;414(1):703-712

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    PMID: 34841479

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