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    Modern personalized medicine strategies builds on therapy companion diagnostics to stratify patients into subgroups with differential benefit/risk. In general, stratification for drug response implies a treatment-by-subgroup interaction. This interaction is usually suggested by the drug's mechanism of action and investigated in pharmacological research or in clinical studies. In these candidate genes or pathway approaches, either biological reasons for a differential benefit/risk or statistical interaction regarding a pharmacological or clinical endpoint or both may be given. For successful drug approval, demonstration of a positive benefit/risk balance in the intended patient population is required. This also applies to situations with biomarker-selected populations. However, further regulatory considerations relate to the usefulness and plausibility of the selected patients and benefit/risk extrapolations or alternative therapy options in biomarker-negative populations. To facilitate the specification of regulatory requirements and support the design of clinical development programmes, a systematic classification of biomarker-drug pairs is needed, in particular with regard to the expected underlying molecular mechanism and the clinical evidence. A classification of five biomarker-drug categories is proposed related to increasing evidence on the biomarker's predictive value in relation to a specific drug. We classified biomarkers into five ascending categories with increasing evidence on the predictive nature of the biomarker in relation to a specific drug according to the comparative pharmacological and clinical evidence. The proposed classification will facilitate regulatory decision-making and support drug development with respect to biomarker-related subgrouping, both, during clinical programme and at the time of marketing authorization application, since the grade of evidence on the differential power of the biomarker can be considered as an indicator for the usefulness of a biomarker-related subgrouping. © 2021. The Author(s).


    Cynthia Huber, Tim Friede, Julia Stingl, Norbert Benda. Classification of Companion Diagnostics: A New Framework for Biomarker-Driven Patient Selection. Therapeutic innovation & regulatory science. 2022 Mar;56(2):244-254

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    PMID: 34841493

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