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Literature review. Adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS) is becoming a more prevalent diagnosis with an increasing elderly population. Our objective is to provide a literature review of genetic and serum markers in ADS. A literature review was conducted in the various databases from their inception to July 2020. Studies that reviewed any genetic or serum markers of ADS whether in detection or progression were selected. Studies that reviewed congenital scoliosis or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) were excluded. A total of 1447 titles were identified of which 14 were included in the final review. Two papers reported on serum markers pertaining to serum cartilage metabolites and pentosidine. Twelve studies reported on genetic markers including gene polymorphisms in estrogen receptors, parathyroid hormone receptors, interleukin 6, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), COL2A1, GPRIN1, TRAIL, GRIN receptor, RIMS, LBX1 as well as copy number variations. Serum markers of osteoarthritis and sarcopenia have been found to be significantly elevated in ADS patients as well. Numerous polymorphisms have been found in a variety of genes playing key roles in bone formation and regulation. Further research is needed in validating previous studies as well as identifying other biomarkers for patients at risk for developing ADS. © 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Scoliosis Research Society.


Omar S Akbik, V S Ban, Matthew C MacAllister, Salah G Aoun, Carlos A Bagley. Genetic and serum markers in adult degenerative scoliosis: a literature review. Spine deformity. 2022 May;10(3):479-488

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PMID: 34846717

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