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    Fertility treatment with frozen thawed embryo transfer (FET) is widely used. Women treated in artificial cycles (AC-FET) receive high doses of estrogen in contrast to natural cycles (NC-FET), where no estrogen is administered. Estrogen substitution may be associated with increased risk of thromboembolism. Our aim is therefore to characterize changes in blood coagulation parameters defined as surrogate thrombotic risk markers in women undergoing estrogen substitution during AC-FET. In our prospective cohort study, we enrolled 34 women in either: AC-FET (n = 19) or NC-FET (n = 15). Women were recruited at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Horsens Fertility Clinic, Denmark, from August 2019 - November 2020. Blood samples were obtained at four timepoints. Thrombin generation, platelet aggregation and fibrinolysis were evaluated as thrombotic risk markers. Within the AC-FET group, we found a significantly shorter lagtime (p < 0.05) and time to peak (TTP) (p < 0.001) after hormone substitution compared to baseline. Furthermore, a significantly higher mean peak (p < 0.0001) and larger endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) (p < 0.0001) was observed. When compared to the NC-FET group, women receiving AC-FET had a significantly shorter mean TTP (p < 0.005), higher mean peak (p < 0.0001) and larger ETP (p < 0.05). Additionally, we demonstrated a significantly prolonged lysis time within the AC-FET group (p < 0.001). Our results indicate that women receiving AC-FET have a significantly increased thrombin generation which may increase the thromboembolic risk in women being estrogen substituted. Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


    Trine Holm Dalsgaard, Anne-Mette Hvas, Kirstine Stiller Kirkegaard, Maria Vestergaard Jensen, Ulla Breth Knudsen. Impact of frozen thawed embryo transfer in hormone substituted cycles on thrombotic risk markers. Thrombosis research. 2022 Jan;209:23-32

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    PMID: 34847404

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