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    The toxicological profile of particulates released from carbon fibre-reinforced composites (CFC) incorporating nanoadditives, under impact and fire conditions (e.g. aircraft crash), is unknown to date. Our aim was to investigate the effects of simultaneous impact and fire on the physicochemical features of the particles released from CFCs produced from a graphene oxide (GO)-reinforced epoxy resin and the consequences on its toxicological profile. CFC samples with (CFC + GO) or without GO (CFC) were subjected to simultaneous impact and fire through a specific setup. Soot and residues were characterised and their toxicity was compared to that of virgin GO. Virgin GO was not cytotoxic but induced pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress responses. The toxicity profile of CFC was similar for soot and residue: globally not cytotoxic, inducing a pro-inflammatory response and no oxidative stress. However, an increased cytotoxicity at the highest concentration was potentially caused by fibres of reduced diameters or fibril bundles, which were observed only in this condition. While the presence of GO in CFC did not alter the cytotoxicity profile, it seemed to drive the pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress response in soot. On the contrary, in CFC + GO residue the biological activity was decreased due to the physicochemical alterations of the materials. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Robert Chapple, Carine Chivas-Joly, Ozge Kose, Emmajane L Erskine, Laurent Ferry, José-Marie Lopez-Cuesta, Baljinder K Kandola, Valérie Forest. Graphene oxide incorporating carbon fibre-reinforced composites submitted to simultaneous impact and fire: Physicochemical characterisation and toxicology of the by-products. Journal of hazardous materials. 2022 Feb 15;424(Pt B):127544

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    PMID: 34879530

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