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    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), i.e., the interaction of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), often influences plant growth, physiology, and metabolism. Effects of AM on the metabolic composition of plant phloem sap may affect aphids. We investigated the impacts of AM on primary metabolites in phloem exudates of the plant species Plantago major and Poa annua and on the aphid Myzus persicae. Plants were grown without or with a generalist AMF species, leaf phloem exudates were collected, and primary metabolites were measured. Additionally, the performance of M. persicae on control and mycorrhizal plants of both species was assessed. While the plant species differed largely in the relative proportions of primary metabolites in their phloem exudates, metabolic effects of AM were less pronounced. Slightly higher proportions of sucrose and shifts in proportions of some amino acids in mycorrhizal plants indicated changes in phloem upload and resource allocation patterns within the plants. Aphids showed a higher performance on P. annua than on P. major. AM negatively affected the survival of aphids on P. major, whereas positive effects of AM were found on P. annua in a subsequent generation. Next to other factors, the metabolic composition of the phloem exudates may partly explain these findings.


    Jana Stallmann, Rabea Schweiger. Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on Primary Metabolites in Phloem Exudates of Plantago major and Poa annua and on a Generalist Aphid. International journal of molecular sciences. 2021 Dec 03;22(23)

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    PMID: 34884890

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