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    Calystegia soldanella is a halophyte and a perennial herb that grows on coastal sand dunes worldwide. Extracts from this plant have been previously revealed to have a variety of bioactive properties in humans. However, their effects on colorectal cancer cells remain poorly understood. In the present study, the potential biological activity of C. soldanella extracts in the colorectal cancer cell line HT‑29 was examined. First, five solvent fractions [n‑hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate, n‑butanol and water] were obtained from the crude extracts of C. soldanella through an organic solvent extraction method. In particular, the DCM fraction was demonstrated to exert marked dose‑ and time‑dependent inhibitory effects according to results from the cell viability assay. Data obtained from the apoptosis assay suggested that the inhibition of HT‑29 cell viability induced by DCM treatment was attributed to increased apoptosis. The apoptotic rate was markedly increased in a dose‑dependent manner, which was associated with the protein expression levels of apoptosis‑related proteins, including increased Fas, Bad and Bax, and decreased pro‑caspase‑8, Bcl‑2, Bcl‑xL, pro‑caspase‑9, pro‑caspase‑7 and pro‑caspase‑3. A mitochondrial membrane potential assay demonstrated that more cells became depolarized and the extent of cytochrome c release was markedly increased in a dose‑dependent manner in HT‑29 cells treated with DCM. In addition, cell cycle analysis confirmed S‑phase arrest following DCM fraction treatment, which was associated with decreased protein expression levels of cell cycle‑related proteins, such as cyclin A, CDK2, cell division cycle 25 A and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1. Based on these results, the present study suggested that the DCM fraction of the C. soldanella extract can inhibit HT‑29 cell viability whilst inducing apoptosis through mitochondrial membrane potential regulation and S‑phase arrest. These results also suggested that the DCM fraction has potential anticancer activity in HT‑29 colorectal cells. Further research on the composition of the DCM fraction is warranted.


    In-Hye Kim, Taekil Eom, Joon-Young Park, Hyung-Joo Kim, Taek-Jeong Nam. Dichloromethane fractions of Calystegia soldanella induce S‑phase arrest and apoptosis in HT‑29 human colorectal cancer cells. Molecular medicine reports. 2022 Feb;25(2)

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    PMID: 34935054

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