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Almonds (Prunus dulcis) are one of the most consumed tree-nuts worldwide, with commercial production in arid environments such as California, Spain, and Australia. The high consumption of almonds is partly due to their versatile usage in products such as gluten-free flour and dairy alternatives as well as them being a source of protein in vegetarian diets. They contain high concentrations of health-promoting compounds such as Vitamin E and have demonstrated benefits for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and improving vascular health. In addition, almonds are the least allergenic tree nut and contain minute quantities of cyanogenic glycosides. Production has increased significantly in the past two decades with 3.12 billion pounds of kernel meat produced in California alone in 2020 (USDA 2021), leading to a new emphasis on the valorization of the coproducts (e.g., hulls, shells, skins, and blanch water). This article presents a review of the chemical composition of almond kernels (e.g., macro and micronutrients, phenolic compounds, cyanogenic glycosides, and allergens) and the current research exploring the valorization of almond coproducts.


Haruka Tomishima, Kathleen Luo, Alyson E Mitchell. The Almond (Prunus dulcis): Chemical Properties, Utilization, and Valorization of Coproducts. Annual review of food science and technology. 2022 Mar 25;13:145-166

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PMID: 34936815

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