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Hispidulin is abundant in Arrabidaea chica, Crossostephium chinense, and Grindelia argentina, among others. p-Synephrine is the main phytochemical constituent of Citrus aurantium. It has been used in combination with various other phytochemicals to determine synergistic effects in studies involving human participants. However, there have been no reports comparing the anti-adipogenic effects of the combination of hispidulin and p-synephrine. The current study explores the anti-adipogenic effects of hispidulin alone and in combination with p-synephrine in a murine preadipocyte cell line, 3T3-L1. Co-treatment resulted in a greater inhibition of the formation of red-labeled lipid droplets than the hispidulin or p-synephrine-alone treatments. Co-treatment with hispidulin and p-synephrine also significantly inhibited adipogenic marker proteins, including Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinases, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, glucocorticoid receptor, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β. Although further studies are required to assess the effects of each drug on pharmacokinetic parameters, a combination treatment with hispidulin and p-synephrine may be a potential alternative strategy for developing novel anti-obesity drugs.


Dahae Lee, Hee Jae Kwak, Byoung Ha Kim, Seung Hyun Kim, Dong-Wook Kim, Ki Sung Kang. Combined Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Hispidulin and p-Synephrine on 3T3-L1 Adipocytes. Biomolecules. 2021 Nov 25;11(12)

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PMID: 34944408

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