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This research explores the impact of environment, life expectancy, and real GDP per capita on health expenditures in a sample of 27 EU member states over the 2000-2018 period through causality and cointegration analyses. The causality analysis revealed a significant unilateral causality from variables of greenhouse gas emissions, life expectancy, and real GDP per capita to health expenditures. In other words, greenhouse gas emissions, life expectancy, and real GDP per capita had a significant impact on health expenditures in the short run. The cointegration analysis indicated that life expectancy and real GDP per capita had a significant positive impact on health expenditures at the overall panel. On the other side, the country level cointegration coefficients revealed that life expectancy had a considerable positive impact on health expenditures, real GDP per capita had a moderate positive impact on the health expenditures in most of the countries in the panel, but the environment proxied by greenhouse gas emissions had a low positive or negative impact on the health expenditures in a limited number of countries.

Citation

Yilmaz Bayar, Marius Dan Gavriletea, Mirela Oana Pintea, Ioana Cristina Sechel. Impact of Environment, Life Expectancy and Real GDP per Capita on Health Expenditures: Evidence from the EU Member States. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2021 Dec 14;18(24)

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PMID: 34948785

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