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Hemocyanin is an important non-specific innate immune defense molecule with phenoloxidase, antiviral, antibacterial, hemolytic, and antitumor activities. To better understand the mechanism of functional diversity, proteomics approach was applied to characterize hemocyanin (HMC) expression profiles from Litopenaeus vannamei. At first, hemocyanin was purified by Sephadex G-100 and DEAE-cellulose (DE-52) columns from shrimp serum, and 34 protein spots were identified as HMC on the 2-DE gels. Furthermore, we found that 9 HMC spots about 75 or 77 kDa were regulated by Streptococcus agalactiae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection at 6, 12, and 24 h. In addition, 6 different pathogen-binding HMC fractions, viz., HMC-Mix, HMC-Vp, HMC-Va, HMC-Vf, HMC-Ec, and HMC-Sa, showed different agglutinative and antibacterial activities. Moreover, lectin-blotting analysis showed significant differences in glycosylation level among HMC isomers and bacteria-binding HMC fractions. Particularly, the agglutinative activities of the HMC fractions were almost completely abolished when HMC was deglycosylated by O-glycosidase, which suggest that O-linked sugar chains of HMC played important roles in the innate immune recognition. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that L. vannamei HMC had molecular diversity in protein level, which is closely associated with its ability to recognize diverse pathogens, whereas glycan modification probably contributed to HMC's diversity and multiple immune activities. Copyright © 2021 Zhao, Qiao, Zhang, Zhang, Aweya, Chen, Zhao and Zhang.

Citation

Xianliang Zhao, Jie Qiao, Pei Zhang, Zehui Zhang, Jude Juventus Aweya, Xiaohan Chen, Yongzhen Zhao, Yueling Zhang. Protein Diversity and Immune Specificity of Hemocyanin From Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Frontiers in immunology. 2021;12:772091

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PMID: 34950141

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