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    Hypocretin (hcrt) is a stress-reacting neuropeptide mediating arousal and energy homeostasis. An inescapable footshock stimulation (IFS) could initiate the hcrt release from the lateral hypothalamus (LHA) and suppresses rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in rodents. However, the effects of the IFS-induced hcrts on REM-off nuclei, the locus coeruleus (LC) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), remained unclear. We hypothesized that the hcrt projections from the LHA to LC or DRN mediate IFS-induced sleep disruption. Our results demonstrated that the IFS increased hcrt expression and the neuronal activities in the LHA, hypothalamus, brainstem, thalamus, and amygdala. Suppressions of REM sleep and slow wave activity during non-REM (NREM) sleep caused by the high expression of hcrts were blocked when a nonspecific and dual hcrt receptor antagonist was administered into the LC or DRN. Furthermore, the IFS also caused an elevated innate anxiety, but was limitedly influenced by the hcrt antagonist. This result suggests that the increased hcrt concentrations in the LC and DRN mediate stress-induced sleep disruptions and might partially involve IFS-induced anxiety. © Sleep Research Society 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:


    Yun Lo, Pei-Lu Yi, Yi-Tse Hsiao, Fang-Chia Chang. Hypocretin in locus coeruleus and dorsal raphe nucleus mediates inescapable footshock stimulation (IFS)-induced REM sleep alteration. Sleep. 2022 Mar 14;45(3)

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    PMID: 34969120

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