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    Mitochondrial disease diagnosis requires interrogation of both nuclear and mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes for single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy number alterations, both in the proband and often maternal relatives, together with careful phenotype correlation. We developed a comprehensive mtDNA sequencing test ('MitoGenome') using long-range PCR (LR-PCR) to amplify the full length of the mtDNA genome followed by next generation sequencing (NGS) to accurately detect SNVs and large-scale mtDNA deletions (LSMD), combined with droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) for LSMD heteroplasmy quantification. Overall, MitoGenome tests were performed on 428 samples from 394 patients with suspected or confirmed mitochondrial disease. The positive yield was 11% (43/394), including 34 patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic SNVs (the most common being m.3243A > G in 8/34 (24%) patients), 8 patients with single LSMD, and 3 patients with multiple LSMD exceeding 10% heteroplasmy levels. Two patients with both LSMD and pathogenic SNV were detected. Overall, this LR-PCR/NGS assay provides a highly accurate and comprehensive diagnostic method for simultaneous mtDNA SNV detection at heteroplasmy levels as low as 1% and LSMD detection at heteroplasmy levels below 10%. Inclusion of maternal samples for variant classification and ddPCR to quantify LSMD heteroplasmy levels further enables accurate pathogenicity assessment and clinical correlation interpretation of mtDNA genome sequence variants and copy number alterations. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Jing Wang, Jorune Balciuniene, Maria Alejandra Diaz-Miranda, Elizabeth M McCormick, Erfan Aref-Eshghi, Alison M Muir, Kajia Cao, Juliana Troiani, Alicia Moseley, Zhiqian Fan, Zarazuela Zolkipli-Cunningham, Amy Goldstein, Rebecca D Ganetzky, Colleen C Muraresku, James T Peterson, Nancy B Spinner, Douglas C Wallace, Matthew C Dulik, Marni J Falk. Advanced approach for comprehensive mtDNA genome testing in mitochondrial disease. Molecular genetics and metabolism. 2022 Jan;135(1):93-101

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    PMID: 34969639

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