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    A direct comparison of intraoperative CT (iCT), cone-beam CT (CBCT), and robotic cone-beam CT (rCBCT) has been necessary to identify the ideal imaging solution for each individual user's need. Herein, the authors sought to analyze workflow, handling, and performance of iCT, CBCT, and rCBCT imaging for navigated pedicle screw instrumentation across the entire spine performed within the same surgical environment by the same group of surgeons. Between 2014 and 2018, 503 consecutive patients received 2673 navigated pedicle screws using iCT (n = 1219), CBCT (n = 646), or rCBCT (n = 808) imaging during the first 24 months after the acquisition of each modality. Clinical and demographic data, workflow, handling, and screw assessment and accuracy were analyzed. Intraoperative CT showed image quality and workflow advantages for cervicothoracic cases, obese patients, and long-segment instrumentation, whereas CBCT and rCBCT offered independent handling, around-the-clock availability, and the option of performing 2D fluoroscopy. All modalities permitted reliable intraoperative screw assessment. Navigated screw revision was possible with each modality and yielded final accuracy rates > 92% in all groups (iCT 96.2% vs CBCT 92.3%, p < 0.001) without a difference in the accuracy of cervical pedicle screw placement or the rate of secondary screw revision surgeries. Continuous training and an individual setup of iCT, CBCT, and rCBCT has been shown to permit safe and precise navigated posterior instrumentation across the entire spine with reliable screw assessment and the option of immediate revision. The perceived higher image quality and larger scan area of iCT should be weighed against the around-the-clock availability of CBCT and rCBCT technology with the option of single-handed robotic image acquisition.


    Paul Kendlbacher, Dimitri Tkatschenko, Marcus Czabanka, Simon Bayerl, Georg Bohner, Johannes Woitzik, Peter Vajkoczy, Nils Hecht. Workflow and performance of intraoperative CT, cone-beam CT, and robotic cone-beam CT for spinal navigation in 503 consecutive patients. Neurosurgical focus. 2022 Jan;52(1):E7

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    PMID: 34973677

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