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    Chitosan (CS) is a natural polymer derived from chitin that has wide applications in drugs, vaccines, and antigen delivery. The distinctive mucoadhesive, biocompatibility, biodegradable, and less toxic properties of chitosan compared to the currently used vaccine adjuvants made it a promising candidate for use as an adjuvant/carrier in vaccine delivery. In addition, chitosan exhibits intrinsic immunomodulating properties making it a suitable adjuvant in preparing vaccines delivery systems. Nanoparticles (NPs) of chitosan and its derivatives loaded with antigen have been shown to induce cellular and humoral responses. Versatility in the physicochemical properties of chitosan can provide an excellent opportunity to engineer antigen-specific adjuvant/delivery systems. This review discusses the recent advances of chitosan and its derivatives as adjuvants in vaccine deliveryand the published literature in the last fifteen years. The impact of physicochemical properties of chitosan on vaccine formulation has been described in detail. Applications of chitosan and its derivatives, their physicochemical properties, and mechanisms in enhancing immune responses have been discussed. Finally, challenges and future aspects of chitosan use has been pointed out. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Isra Dmour, Nazrul Islam. Recent advances on chitosan as an adjuvant for vaccine delivery. International journal of biological macromolecules. 2022 Mar 01;200:498-519

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    PMID: 34973993

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