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    In vitro manipulation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by environmental factors is of great interest for three-dimensional (3D) tissue/organ induction. The effects of mechanical force depend on many factors, including force and cell type. However, information on such effects in iPSCs is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify a molecular mechanism in iPSCs responding to intermittent compressive force (ICF) by analyzing the global gene expression profile. Embryoid bodies of mouse iPSCs, attached on a tissue culture plate in 3D form, were subjected to ICF in serum-free culture medium for 24 h. Gene ontology analyses for RNA sequencing data demonstrated that genes differentially regulated by ICF were mainly associated with metabolic processes, membrane and protein binding. Topology-based analysis demonstrated that ICF induced genes in cell cycle categories and downregulated genes associated with metabolic processes. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database revealed differentially regulated genes related to the p53 signaling pathway and cell cycle. qPCR analysis demonstrated significant upregulation of Ccnd1, Cdk6 and Ccng1. Flow cytometry showed that ICF induced cell cycle and proliferation, while reducing the number of apoptotic cells. ICF also upregulated transforming growth factor β1 (Tgfb1) at both mRNA and protein levels, and pretreatment with a TGF-β inhibitor (SB431542) prior to ICF abolished ICF-induced Ccnd1 and Cdk6 expression. Taken together, these findings show that TGF-β signaling in iPSCs enhances proliferation and decreases apoptosis in response to ICF, that could give rise to an efficient protocol to manipulate iPSCs for organoid fabrication. © 2021. The Author(s).


    Jeeranan Manokawinchoke, Phoonsuk Limraksasin, Hiroko Okawa, Prasit Pavasant, Hiroshi Egusa, Thanaphum Osathanon. Intermittent compressive force induces cell cycling and reduces apoptosis in embryoid bodies of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells. International journal of oral science. 2022 Jan 04;14(1):1

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    PMID: 34980892

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