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    Melanomas account for only approximately 4% of diagnosed skin cancers in the United States but are responsible for the majority of deaths caused by skin cancer. Both genetic factors and ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure play a role in the development of melanoma. Although melanomas have a strong propensity to metastasize when diagnosed late, melanomas that are diagnosed and treated early pose a low mortality risk. In particular, the identification of patients with increased metastatic risk, who may benefit from early adjuvant therapies, is crucial, especially given the advent of new melanoma treatments. However, the accuracy of classic clinical and histological variables, including the Breslow thickness, presence of ulceration, and lymph node status, might not be sufficient to identify such individuals. Thus, there is a need for the development of additional prognostic melanoma biomarkers that can improve early attempts to stratify melanoma patients and reliably identify high-risk subgroups with the aim of providing effective personalized therapies. In our current work, we discuss and assess emerging primary melanoma tumor biomarkers and prognostic circulating biomarkers. Several promising biomarkers show prognostic value (eg, exosomal MIA (ie, melanoma inhibitory activity), serum S100B, AMLo signatures, and mRNA signatures); however, the scarcity of reliable data precludes the use of these biomarkers in current clinical applications. Further research is needed on several promising biomarkers for melanoma. Large-scale studies are warranted to facilitate the clinical translation of prognostic biomarker applications for melanoma in personalized medicine. © 2022 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Liang Ding, Alexandra Gosh, Delphine J Lee, Gabriella Emri, Wendy J Huss, Paul N Bogner, Gyorgy Paragh. Prognostic biomarkers of cutaneous melanoma. Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine. 2022 Sep;38(5):418-434

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    PMID: 34981569

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