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The bacterial ecology involved in early pneumonia of severe trauma patients is mostly commensal and would allow wide use of narrow-spectrum antibiotics. We describe risk factors for treatment failure of severe trauma patients' pneumonia with the use of narrow-spectrum antimicrobial therapy in order to develop a score that could help clinicians to determine which patients might be treated with narrow-spectrum antibiotics. A retrospective, observational, monocentric cohort study was conducted of severe trauma patients requiring mechanical ventilation for > 48 h and developing a first episode of microbiologically confirmed pneumonia occurring within the first 10 days after admission. Overall, 370 patients were included. The resistance rate against narrow-spectrum antibiotics (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) was 22.7% (84 pneumonia). In a multivariate analysis, two independent risk factors were associated with this resistance: prior antimicrobial therapy ≥ 48 h (OR 4.00; 95 CI [2.39; 6.75]) and age ≥ 30y (OR 2.10; 95 CI [1.21; 3.78]). We created a prediction score that defined patient with one or two risk factors at high risk of resistance. This score presented a sensitivity of 0.92 [0.88; 0.94], a specificity of 0.33 [0.28; 0.38], a positive predictive value of 0.29 [0.24; 0.33] and a negative predictive value of 0.93 [0.90; 0.95]. Simple risk factors may help clinicians to identify severe trauma patients at high risk of pneumonia treatment failure with the use of narrow-spectrum antimicrobial therapy and, thus, use better tailored empiric therapy and limit the use of unnecessary broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany.


Maël Gennequin, Delphine Bachelet, Philippine Eloy, Jean-Denis Moyer, Antoine Roquilly, Tobias Gauss, Emmanuel Weiss, Arnaud Foucrier. Empiric antimicrobial therapy for early-onset pneumonia in severe trauma patients. European journal of trauma and emergency surgery : official publication of the European Trauma Society. 2022 Aug;48(4):2763-2771

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PMID: 35001179

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