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    Nucleic acid-mediated interferon signaling plays a pivotal role in defense against microorganisms, especially during viral infection. Receptors sensing exogenous nucleic acid molecules are localized in the cytosol and endosomes. Cytosolic sensors, including cGAS, RIG-I, and MDA5, and endosome-anchored receptors are toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9). These TLRs share the same domain architecture and have similar structures, facing the interior of endosomes so their binding to nucleic acids of invading pathogens via endocytosis is possible. The correct function of these receptors is crucial for cell homeostasis and effective response against pathogen invasion. A variety of endogenous mechanisms modulates their activities. Nevertheless, naturally occurring mutations lead to aberrant TLR-mediated interferon (IFN) signaling. Furthermore, certain pathogens require a more robust defense against control. Thus, manipulating these TLR activities has a profound impact. High-throughput virtual screening followed by experimental validation led to the discovery of numerous chemicals that can change these TLR-mediated IFN signaling activities. Many of them are unique in selectivity, while others regulate more than one TLR due to commonalities in these receptors. We summarized these nucleic acid-sensing TLR-mediated IFN signaling pathways and the corresponding chemicals activating or deactivating their signaling. Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.


    Xiao Li, Xinyuan Sun, Xuemin Guo, Xueren Li, Shouchun Peng, Xin Mu. Chemical reagents modulate nucleic acid-activated toll-like receptors. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie. 2022 Mar;147:112622

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    PMID: 35008000

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