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    Cerebral ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury easily develops in ischemic stroke, resulting in more serious injury. Ferroptosis is involved in cerebral I/R injury, but the mechanism remains unclear. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is potential to regulate ferroptosis. This study mainly explored the regulation effects of PGE2 on ferroptosis induced by cerebral I/R. We first detected PGE2 levels and ferroptosis status in 11 human brain tissues. Then, we induced a cerebral I/R animal model to examine ferroptosis status in cerebral I/R. We further injected a ferroptosis inhibitor to define the response of the PGE2 pathway to ferroptosis. Finally, we injected PGE2 and pranoprofen to explore the regulation of the cyclooxygenases 2 (COX-2)/PGE2 pathway on ferroptosis in cerebral I/R. We found that PGE2 release was correlated with the levels of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase 4, COX-2, and Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1. Ferroptosis can be induced by cerebral I/R, while inhibition of ferroptosis induced by cerebral I/R can inactivate PGE2 synthases, degrade enzyme, and parts of PGE2 receptors, and reduce cerebral infarct volume. In turn, PGE2 inhibited ferroptosis through the reduction of Fe2+, glutathione oxidation, and lipid peroxidation, while pranoprofen, one of the COX inhibitors, played an opposite role. In conclusion, PGE2 was positively correlated with ferroptosis, inhibition of ferroptosis induced by cerebral I/R can inactivate COX-2/PGE2 pathway, and PGE2 inhibited ferroptosis induced by cerebral I/R, possibly via PGE2 receptor 3 and PGE2 receptor 4. Graphical abstract Inhibition of ferroptosis inactivates the COX-2/PGE2 pathway. Cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury induces the secretion of PGE2. After the inhibition of ferroptosis by Fer-1, the expression of cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) decreased, and PGE2 synthases cPGES, mPGES-1, and mPGES-2 were also reduced. At the same time, the PGE2 degradation enzyme 15-PGDH was also reduced. Changes in these enzymes ultimately result in the declination of PGE2. Besides, the expression of PGE2 receptors EP3 and EP4 is also inhibited, indicating that the function they mediate is also impaired. In conclusion, after cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury, the inhibition of ferroptosis inactivates the COX-2/PGE2 pathway. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


    Yunfei Xu, Ying Liu, Kexin Li, Dun Yuan, Shun Yang, Lin Zhou, Yao Zhao, Shuying Miao, Caihong Lv, Jie Zhao. COX-2/PGE2 Pathway Inhibits the Ferroptosis Induced by Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion. Molecular neurobiology. 2022 Mar;59(3):1619-1631

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    PMID: 35013936

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