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    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of red laser (660 nm) photobiomodulation (PBM) with different energies on tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α) expression for random skin flap viability in rats. Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sham group (SG), PBM laser group with an energy dose of 0.29 J (0.29G), and PBM laser group with an energy dose of 7.30 J (7.30G). A cranially based dorsal skin flap measuring 10 × 4 cm was raised and a plastic barrier was placed between the flap and its bed. PBM was applied in 3 timepoints: in the immediate postoperative period, in the 1st and in the 2nd postoperative days; the animals were euthanized on the 7th postoperative day. The assessments included: TNF-α expression of 3 different flap areas (proximal, medial and distal), by immunohistochemistry; percentage of skin flap necrosis area, by the paper template method. The statistical analysis was performed through the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests, the level of significance adopted was 5% (p < 0.05). TNF-α expression was significantly lower for 7.30G in the proximal area, reduced for SG in the medial point, and larger for 7.30G in the distal area. The percentage of flap necrosis area was significantly reduced for 7.30G. Higher energy doses are more efficacious than lower energy doses for modulating TNF-α expression. PBM with an energy dose of 7.30 J was effective in reducing the expression of TNF-α and increase skin flap viability. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature.


    Georgia Rodrigues Esteves, Ivaldo Esteves Junior, Igor Fagioli Bordello Masson, Aline Fernanda Perez Machado, Maria Carolina Derencio Oliveira, Cristiano Schiavinato Baldan, Thiago Saikali Farcic, Richard Eloin Liebano, Hélio Plapler. Photobiomodulation effect in tumoral necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α) on the viability of random skin flap in rats. Lasers in medical science. 2022 Apr;37(3):1495-1501

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    PMID: 35015175

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