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    Evaluate the effectiveness of compression while receiving chemotherapy compared with chemotherapy alone in the treatment of HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS) lymphedema. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in a single oncology clinic in western Kenya (NCT03404297). A computer-generated randomization schedule was used to allocate treatment arms. Randomized block design was used for stratification by lymphedema stage. Participants were HIV positive adults age ≥ 18 years on antiretroviral therapy with biopsy-proven KS associated with leg lymphedema and being initiated on chemotherapy. The intervention was 10 weeks of weekly clinic-based application of two-component paste compression bandages. The primary outcome was change in the Lower Extremity Lymphedema Index (LELI) score from week 0 to week 14. The secondary outcomes were change in the Lymphedema Quality of Life measure (LYMQOL) and change in the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 score from week 0 to week 14. Blinded outcome assessments were conducted. Of 30 participants randomly assigned, 25 eligible patients (chemotherapy [control], n = 13; compression plus chemotherapy [intervention], n = 12) returned at week 14. Change in LELI, LYMQOL, and EORTC QLQ-C30 scores between week 14 and week 0 did not significantly differ by arm. The mean (standard deviation) change in LELI score was -25.9 (34.6) for the control arm compared with -13.3 (29.5) for the intervention arm, P = .340. The difference (95% CI) in the change in LELI score was -12.6 (-39.3 to 14.1). Future studies evaluating a 14-week change in LELI for KS lymphedema should assume a standard deviation of approximately 30. Lessons learned from this pilot trial should inform the development of a larger, multicenter trial to evaluate the effectiveness of compression for KS lymphedema.


    Aileen Y Chang, Rakhi Karwa, Haji Odhiambo, Phelix Were, Sara L Fletcher, Edith C Tonui, Michael A Kohn, Jeannette Lee, Di Chang, Shelly Lensing, Diana Flora Namaemba, Naftali Busakhala, Samson K Kiprono, Toby Maurer, Suzanne Goodrich, Sonak D Pastakia. Compression Therapy for HIV-Associated Kaposi Sarcoma Leg Lymphedema: Results of the Kenyan Improvised Compression for Kaposi Sarcoma Randomized Controlled Trial. JCO global oncology. 2022 Jan;8:e2100329

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    PMID: 35025687

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