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Freezing of gait (FOG) is a disabling motor symptom occurring mainly in the advanced stage of Parkinson's disease (PD). This review outlines the clinical manifestation of FOG and its relationship with levodopa treatment, the differential diagnosis with respect to other neurodegenerative and secondary forms and the available treatment. We report the proposed models explaining the FOG phenomenon and summarize the available knowledge on FOG etiology's potential genetic contribution. A complete understanding of the mechanisms underlying FOG in PD is essential to find the best therapy. Different treatment options exist but are still not entirely successful, and often a combination of approaches is needed. Further studies focusing on the potential genetic role in FOG may increase the knowledge on the FOG etiology and pathophysiology, allowing further individualized treatment strategies for this very disabling phenomenon. © 2021. Fondazione Società Italiana di Neurologia.


Marika Falla, Giovanni Cossu, Alessio Di Fonzo. Freezing of gait: overview on etiology, treatment, and future directions. Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology. 2022 Mar;43(3):1627-1639

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PMID: 35028778

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