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    To estimate the associations between dysnatraemia and inflammatory marker [including interleukin-6 (IL-6)], and tissue remodelling marker [matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-1], the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (EDP), and the prognostic relevance in patients with heart failure. The serum sodium level and circulating levels of IL-6, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 were measured in 173 heart failure patients. Dual heart catheterisation was performed to measure PCWP, mean PAP, and EDP. All-cause mortality was assessed during the follow-up period (mean 88 ± 49 months). Restricted cubic spline (RCS) regression showed a U-shaped association of serum sodium level with TIMP-1, with the lowest values in the 138-140 mmol/L range (P for effect = 0.042, P for non-linearity = 0.017). IL-6 and MMP-9 levels showed non-significant associations with serum sodium level. U-shaped associations of serum sodium level with PCWP (P for effect = 0.004, P for non-linearity = 0.001) and mean PAP (P for effect = 0.042, P for non-linearity = 0.017) were found with the RCS regression model. The random forest model revealed that TIMP-1, MMP-9, and IL-6 were important predictors for serum sodium levels. Restricted cubic spline Cox regressions demonstrated that TIMP-1 levels indicated a U-shaped, concaved, non-linear association with all-cause mortality (P for effect = 0.011, P for non-linearity = 0.022). Dysnatraemia is an index of TIMP-1 aggravation and elevated PCWP, mean PAP; hence, it is associated with worsening all-cause mortality.Clinical Trial Registration: UMIN000023840. © 2021. Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature.


    Tetsuji Morishita, Hiroyasu Uzui, Kaori Hisazaki, Yasuhiko Mitsuke, Taketoshi Yamazaki, Hiroshi Tada. Relationships between sodium levels, haemodynamics and metalloproteinases in heart failure patients. Heart and vessels. 2022 Jun;37(6):986-993

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    PMID: 35031882

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