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    Lead (Pb) is a non-essential metal naturally present in the environment and often complexed with other elements (e.g., copper, selenium, zinc). This metal has been used since ancient Egypt and its extraction has grown in the last centuries. It has been used until recently as a fuel additive and is currently used in the production of vehicle batteries, paint, and plumbing. Marine ecosystems are sinks of terrestrial contaminations; consequently, lead is detected in oceans and seas. Furthermore, lead is not biodegradable. It remains in soil, atmosphere, and water inducing multiple negative impacts on marine invertebrates (key species in trophic chain) disturbing ecological ecosystems. This review established our knowledge on lead accumulation and its effects on marine invertebrates (Annelida, Cnidaria, Crustacea, Echinodermata, and Mollusca). Lead may affect different stages of development from fertilization to larval development and can also lead to disturbance in reproduction and mortality. Furthermore, we discussed changes in the seawater chemistry due to Ocean Acidification, which can affect the solubility, speciation, and distribution of the lead, increasing potentially its toxicity to marine invertebrates. © 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


    A Botté, C Seguin, J Nahrgang, M Zaidi, J Guery, V Leignel. Lead in the marine environment: concentrations and effects on invertebrates. Ecotoxicology (London, England). 2022 Mar;31(2):194-207

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    PMID: 35037181

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