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Rare actinomycetes are a source of numerous diverse, biologically active secondary metabolites, including macrolides, which have been shown to display several antibiotic activities. The bioactivities and representative structures of 26 groups of macrolides from rare actinomycetes are presented in this review. The most interesting groups, with a wide range of biological activities, are ammocidins, bafilomycins, neomaclafungins, rosaramicins, spinosyns, and tiacumicins. Most macrolides are from the genus, Micromonospora, with smaller contributions from genera such as Saccharothrix, Amycolatopsis, Nocardiopsis and Catenulispora. These macrolides display unique cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, anti-trypanosomal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antimycobacterial and anti-herpetic activity. Considering their bioactivities and diverse structures, macrolides from rare actinomycetes warrant further investigation for future applications in medicine. This work highlights the bioactivities and structures of important classes of macrolides from rare actinomycetes that are already marketed or could be used in medicine in the future. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ammar A Al-Fadhli, Michael D Threadgill, Faez Mohammed, Paul Sibley, Wadie Al-Ariqi, Ifat Parveen. Macrolides from rare actinomycetes: Structures and bioactivities. International journal of antimicrobial agents. 2022 Feb;59(2):106523

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PMID: 35041941

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