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    Foods with medical value have been proven to be beneficial, and they are extensively employed since they integrate two essential elements: food and medication. Accordingly, diabetic patients can benefit from papaya because the fruit is low in sugar and high in antioxidants. An RP-HPLC method was designed for studying the pharmacokinetics of metformin (MET) when concurrently administered with papaya extract. A mobile phase of 0.5 mM of KH2PO4 solution and methanol (65:35, v/v), pH = 5 ± 0.2 using aqueous phosphoric acid and NaOH, and guaifenesin (GUF) were used as an internal standard. To perform non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis, the Pharmacokinetic program (PK Solver) was used. The method's greenness was analyzed using two tools: the Analytical GREEnness calculator and the RGB additive color model. Taking papaya with MET improved the rate of absorption substantially (time for reaching maximum concentration (Tmax) significantly decreased by 75% while maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) increased by 7.33%). The extent of absorption reduced by 22.90%. Furthermore, the amount of medication distributed increased (30.83 L for MET concurrently used with papaya extract versus 24.25 L for MET used alone) and the clearance rate rose by roughly 13.50%. The results of the greenness assessment indicated that the method is environmentally friendly. Taking papaya with MET changed the pharmacokinetics of the drug dramatically. Hence, this combination will be particularly effective in maintaining quick blood glucose control.


    Mohamed A Abdelgawad, Mohammed Elmowafy, Arafa Musa, Mohammad M Al-Sanea, AbdElAziz A Nayl, Mohammed M Ghoneim, Yasmine M Ahmed, Hossam M Hassan, Asmaa M AboulMagd, Heba F Salem, Nada S Abdelwahab. Development and Greenness Assessment of HPLC Method for Studying the Pharmacokinetics of Co-Administered Metformin and Papaya Extract. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2022 Jan 07;27(2)

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    PMID: 35056687

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