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One of the most complex risk factors for the laboratory assessment of thrombophilia is Protein S (PS). The testing algorithm for PS employs the plasma-based assays of free PS antigen, total PS antigen, and PS activity creating a complex diagnostic scheme that can lead to misdiagnosis if incorrectly used, and a potential waste of resources and money. This paper compares the recently published evidence-based algorithm from the International Society for Hemostasis and Thrombosis (ISTH) with several commonly performed nonevidence-based testing schemes, to demonstrate the efficiency of the evidence-based algorithm for diagnostic efficiency with improved patient care and increased cost savings for the laboratory. Significant savings (31%-60%) can be realized when the evidence-based algorithm is used in place of other testing modalities of initial PS activity testing (31%) or testing with all 3 assays simultaneously (60%). This study utilizing the PS testing evidence-based algorithm as part of a thrombophilia evaluation demonstrates that the appropriate testing methods can be used to limit wasteful practices while achieving the maximum level of information in this time of limited resources and need for increase monetary savings. © American Association for Clinical Chemistry 2022. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:


Marian A Rollins-Raval, John V Mitsios, Richard A Marlar. Cost-Effective Use of the Protein S Algorithm in Thrombophilia Testing. The journal of applied laboratory medicine. 2022 May 04;7(3):794-802

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PMID: 35060606

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