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Treatment-induced tumor dormancy is a state in cancer progression where residual disease is present but remains asymptomatic. Dormant cancer cells are treatment-resistant and responsible for cancer recurrence and metastasis. Prostate cancer treated with androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) often enters a dormant state. ADT-induced prostate cancer dormancy remains poorly understood due to the challenge in acquiring clinical dormant prostate cancer cells and the lack of representative models. In this study, we aimed to develop clinically relevant models for studying ADT-induced prostate cancer dormancy. Dormant prostate cancer models were established by castrating mice bearing patient-derived xenografts (PDX) of hormonal naïve or sensitive prostate cancer. Dormancy status and tumor relapse were monitored and evaluated. Paired pre- and postcastration (dormant) PDX tissues were subjected to morphologic and transcriptome profiling analyses. As a result, we established eleven ADT-induced dormant prostate cancer models that closely mimicked the clinical courses of ADT-treated prostate cancer. We identified two ADT-induced dormancy subtypes that differed in morphology, gene expression, and relapse rates. We discovered transcriptomic differences in precastration PDXs that predisposed the dormancy response to ADT. We further developed a dormancy subtype-based, predisposed gene signature that was significantly associated with ADT response in hormonal naïve prostate cancer and clinical outcome in castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with ADT or androgen-receptor pathway inhibitors. We have established highly clinically relevant PDXs of ADT-induced dormant prostate cancer and identified two dormancy subtypes, leading to the development of a novel predicative gene signature that allows robust risk stratification of patients with prostate cancer to ADT or androgen-receptor pathway inhibitors. ©2022 The Authors; Published by the American Association for Cancer Research.

Citation

Xin Dong, Hui Xue, Fan Mo, Yen-Yi Lin, Dong Lin, Nelson K Y Wong, Yingqiang Sun, Scott Wilkinson, Anson T Ku, Jun Hao, Xinpei Ci, Rebecca Wu, Anne Haegert, Rebecca Silver, Mary-Ellen Taplin, Steven P Balk, Joshi J Alumkal, Adam G Sowalsky, Martin Gleave, Colin Collins, Yuzhuo Wang. Modeling Androgen Deprivation Therapy-Induced Prostate Cancer Dormancy and Its Clinical Implications. Molecular cancer research : MCR. 2022 May 04;20(5):782-793

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PMID: 35082166

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