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    The role of mitochondria in enamel, the most mineralized tissue in the body, is poorly defined. Enamel is formed by ameloblast cells in two main sequential stages known as secretory and maturation. Defining the physiological features of each stage is essential to understand mineralization. Here, we analyzed functional features of mitochondria in rat primary secretory and maturation-stage ameloblasts focusing on their role in Ca2+ signaling. Quantification of the Ca2+ stored in the mitochondria by trifluoromethoxy carbonylcyanide phenylhydrazone stimulation was comparable in both stages. The release of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pools by adenosine triphosphate in rhod2AM-loaded cells showed similar mitochondrial Ca2+ (m Ca2+ ) uptake. However, m Ca2+ extrusion via Na+ -Li+ -Ca2+ exchanger was more prominent in maturation. To address if m Ca2+ uptake via the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) played a role in cytosolic Ca2+ (c Ca2+ ) buffering, we stimulated Ca2+ influx via the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) and blocked MCU with the inhibitor Ru265. This inhibitor was first tested using the enamel cell line LS8 cells. Ru265 prevented c Ca2+ clearance in permeabilized LS8 cells like ruthenium red, and it did not affect ΔΨm in intact cells. In primary ameloblasts, SOCE stimulation elicited a significantly higher m Ca2+ uptake in maturation ameloblasts. The uptake of Ca2+ into the mitochondria was dramatically decreased in the presence of Ru265. Combined, these results suggest an increased mitochondrial Ca2+ handling in maturation but only upon stimulation of Ca2+ influx via SOCE. These functional studies provide insights not only on the role of mitochondria in ameloblast Ca2+ physiology, but also advance the concept that SOCE and m Ca2+ uptake are complementary processes in biological mineralization. © 2022 Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.


    Veronica Costiniti, Guilherme H S Bomfim, Maria Neginskaya, Ga-Yeon Son, Erna Mitaishvili, Marta Giacomello, Evgeny Pavlov, Rodrigo S Lacruz. Mitochondria modulate ameloblast Ca2+ signaling. FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 2022 Feb;36(2):e22169

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    PMID: 35084775

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