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    Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) function in forming the correct disulfide bonds in client proteins, thereby aiding the folding of proteins that enter the secretory pathway. Recently, several PDIs have been identified as targets of organic electrophiles, yet the client proteins of specific PDIs remain largely undefined. Here, we report that PDIs expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are targets of divinyl sulfone (DVSF) and other thiol-reactive protein cross-linkers. Using DVSF, we identified the interaction partners that were cross-linked to Pdi1 and Eug1, finding that both proteins form cross-linked complexes with other PDIs, as well as vacuolar hydrolases, proteins involved in cell wall biosynthesis and maintenance, and many ER proteostasis factors involved ER stress signaling and ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). The latter discovery prompted us to examine the effects of DVSF on ER quality control, where we found that DVSF inhibits the degradation of the ERAD substrate CPY*, in addition to covalently modifying Ire1 and blocking the activation of the unfolded protein response. Our results reveal that DVSF targets many proteins within the ER proteostasis network and suggest that these proteins may be suitable targets for covalent therapeutic development in the future.


    Benjamin J Freije, Wilson M Freije, To Uyen Do, Grace E Adkins, Alexander Bruch, Jennifer E Hurtig, Kevin A Morano, Raffael Schaffrath, James D West. Identifying Interaction Partners of Yeast Protein Disulfide Isomerases Using a Small Thiol-Reactive Cross-Linker: Implications for Secretory Pathway Proteostasis. Chemical research in toxicology. 2022 Feb 21;35(2):326-336

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    PMID: 35084835

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