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    Dysregulated c-myc is a determinant of multiple myeloma progression. Translation of c-myc can be achieved by an mTOR-mediated, cap-dependent mechanism or a cap-independent mechanism where a sequence in the 5'UTR of mRNA, termed the internal ribosome entry site (IRES), recruits the 40S ribosomal subunit. This mechanism requires the RNA-binding factor hnRNP A1 (A1) and becomes critical when cap-dependent translation is inhibited during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Thus, we studied the role of A1 and the myc IRES in myeloma biology. A1 expression correlated with enhanced c-myc expression in patient samples. Expression of A1 in multiple myeloma lines was mediated by c-myc itself, suggesting a positive feedback circuit where myc induces A1 and A1 enhances myc translation. We then deleted the A1 gene in a myc-driven murine myeloma model. A1-deleted multiple myeloma cells demonstrated downregulated myc expression and were inhibited in their growth in vivo. Decreased myc expression was due to reduced translational efficiency and depressed IRES activity. We also studied the J007 inhibitor, which prevents A1's interaction with the myc IRES. J007 inhibited myc translation and IRES activity and diminished myc expression in murine and human multiple myeloma lines as well as primary samples. J007 also inhibited tumor outgrowth in mice after subcutaneous or intravenous challenge and prevented osteolytic bone disease. When c-myc was ectopically reexpressed in A1-deleted multiple myeloma cells, tumor growth was reestablished. These results support the critical role of A1-dependent myc IRES translation in myeloma. ©2022 American Association for Cancer Research.


    Yijiang Shi, Fumou Sun, Yan Cheng, Brent Holmes, Binod Dhakal, Joseph F Gera, Siegfried Janz, Alan Lichtenstein. Critical Role for Cap-Independent c-MYC Translation in Progression of Multiple Myeloma. Molecular cancer therapeutics. 2022 Apr 01;21(4):502-510

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    PMID: 35086951

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