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    Intrahippocampal kainic acid (IHKA) has been widely implemented to simulate temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but evidence of robust seizures is usually limited. To resolve this problem, we slightly modified previous methods and show robust seizures are common and frequent in both male and female mice. We employed continuous wideband video-EEG monitoring from 4 recording sites to best demonstrate the seizures. We found many more convulsive seizures than most studies have reported. Mortality was low. Analysis of convulsive seizures at 2-4 and 10-12 wks post-IHKA showed a robust frequency (2-4 per day on average) and duration (typically 20-30 s) at each time. Comparison of the two timepoints showed that seizure burden became more severe in approximately 50% of the animals. We show that almost all convulsive seizures could be characterized as either low-voltage fast or hypersynchronous onset seizures, which has not been reported in a mouse model of epilepsy and is important because these seizure types are found in humans. In addition, we report that high frequency oscillations (>250 Hz) occur, resembling findings from IHKA in rats and TLE patients. Pathology in the hippocampus at the site of IHKA injection was similar to mesial temporal lobe sclerosis and reduced contralaterally. In summary, our methods produce a model of TLE in mice with robust convulsive seizures, and there is variable progression. HFOs are robust also, and seizures have onset patterns and pathology like human TLE. SIGNIFICANCE: Although the IHKA model has been widely used in mice for epilepsy research, there is variation in outcomes, with many studies showing few robust seizures long-term, especially convulsive seizures. We present an implementation of the IHKA model with frequent convulsive seizures that are robust, meaning they are >10 s and associated with complex high frequency rhythmic activity recorded from 2 hippocampal and 2 cortical sites. Seizure onset patterns usually matched the low-voltage fast and hypersynchronous seizures in TLE. Importantly, there is low mortality, and both sexes can be used. We believe our results will advance the ability to use the IHKA model of TLE in mice. The results also have important implications for our understanding of HFOs, progression, and other topics of broad interest to the epilepsy research community. Finally, the results have implications for preclinical drug screening because seizure frequency increased in approximately half of the mice after a 6 wk interval, suggesting that the typical 2 wk period for monitoring seizure frequency is insufficient. Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Christos Panagiotis Lisgaras, Helen E Scharfman. Robust chronic convulsive seizures, high frequency oscillations, and human seizure onset patterns in an intrahippocampal kainic acid model in mice. Neurobiology of disease. 2022 May;166:105637

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    PMID: 35091040

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