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Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can lead to acute hydrocephalus (AH). AH pathophysiology is classically attributed to an obstruction of the arachnoid granulations by blood. Recent findings in rodents suggest that after intraventricular hemorrhage, AH is related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypersecretion by the choroid plexus (CP), as it can be reduced by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of bumetanide. Here, we investigated if and how CSF hypersecretion and/or CSF outflow disorders contribute to post-SAH hydrocephalus. Ninety-four Wistar rats were used. SAH was induced by the endovascular perforation technique. The presence of AH was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and rats with AH were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control group, superior sagittal sinus (SSS) thrombosis to block CSF reabsorption, ICV injection of saline, and ICV injection of bumetanide to decrease CSF secretion. Clinical outcome was evaluated with a neuroscore. A second MRI was performed 24 h later to evaluate the ventricular volume. Fifty percent of rats that survived SAH induction had AH. Their ventricular volume correlated well to the functional outcome after 24 h (r = 0.803). In rats with AH, 24 h later, ventricular volume remained equally increased in the absence of any further procedure. Similarly, ICV injection of saline or SSS thrombosis had no impact on the ventricular volume. However, ICV injection of bumetanide reduced AH by 35.9% (p = 0.002). In rodents, post-SAH hydrocephalus is may be due to hypersecretion of CSF by the CP, as it is limited by ICV injection of bumetanide. However, we cannot exclude other mechanisms involved in post-SAH acute hydrocephalus. © 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature.


Thomas Metayer, Cyrille Orset, Carine Ali, Jonathane Furon, Nicolas Szabla, Evelyne Emery, Denis Vivien, Thomas Gaberel. Bumetanide lowers acute hydrocephalus in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Acta neurochirurgica. 2022 Feb;164(2):499-505

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PMID: 35094147

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