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Root canal curvature and calcification introduce factors that increase the risk of procedural accidents during root canal treatment. The inability to achieve patency to the apical third, asymmetrical dentine removal leading to transportation, perforation, and instrument fracture inside the curved trajectories are some of the procedural problems that might jeopardize the management of intraradicular infection and result in poor treatment outcomes. In fact, curved and constricted canals introduce such complexity that total instrumentation concepts and specially designed instruments have been developed to deal with the challenge. This narrative review seeks to provide and consolidate the principles necessary for understanding the dynamics of curved and constricted canal management and to improve the understanding for future developments in this field. © 2022 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Antonis Chaniotis, Ronald Ordinola-Zapata. Present status and future directions: Management of curved and calcified root canals. International endodontic journal. 2022 May;55 Suppl 3:656-684

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PMID: 35106792

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