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Multiplex electrochemical biosensors have been used for eliminating the matrix effect in complex bodily fluids or enabling the detection of two or more bioanalytes, overall resulting in more sensitive assays and accurate diagnostics. Many electrochemical biosensors lack reliable and low-cost multiplexing to meet the requirements of point-of-care detection due to either limited functional biosensors for multi-electrode detection or incompatible readout systems. We developed a new dual electrochemical biosensing unit accompanied by a customized potentiostat to address the unmet need for point-of-care multi-electrode electrochemical biosensing. The two-working electrode system was developed using screen-printing of a carboxyl-rich nanomaterial containing ink, with both working electrodes offering active sites for recognition of bioanalytes. The low-cost bi-potentiostat system (∼$80) was developed and customized specifically to the bi-electrode design and used for rapid, repeatable, and accurate measurement of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy signals from the dual biosensor. This binary electrochemical data acquisition (Bi-ECDAQ) system accurately and selectively detected SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid protein (N-protein) in both spiked samples and clinical nasopharyngeal swab samples of COVID-19 patients within 30 min. The two working electrodes offered the limit of detection of 116 fg/mL and 150 fg/mL, respectively, with the dynamic detection range of 1-10,000 pg/mL and the sensitivity range of 2744-2936 Ω mL/pg.mm2 for the detection of N-protein. The potentiostat performed comparable or better than commercial Autolab potentiostats while it is significantly lower cost. The open-source Bi-ECDAQ presents a customizable and flexible approach towards addressing the need for rapid and accurate point-of-care electrochemical biosensors for the rapid detection of various diseases. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Razieh Salahandish, Fatemeh Haghayegh, Giancarlo Ayala-Charca, Jae Eun Hyun, Mahmood Khalghollah, Azam Zare, Behrouz Far, Byron M Berenger, Yan Dong Niu, Ebrahim Ghafar-Zadeh, Amir Sanati-Nezhad. Bi-ECDAQ: An electrochemical dual-immuno-biosensor accompanied by a customized bi-potentiostat for clinical detection of SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid proteins. Biosensors & bioelectronics. 2022 May 01;203:114018

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PMID: 35114466

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