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Houseflies (Musca domestica) are important mechanical vectors for the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, 129 houseflies (69 males and 60 females) were collected from 10 different environmental sources and a laboratory population was used. The surface microbiota of houseflies was identified by Next-Generation Sequencing. Staphylococci from the surfaces of houseflies were selectively isolated and their virulence genes, antibiotic susceptibilities, biofilm formation, and clonal relatedness were determined. Metagenomic analysis results demonstrated that Staphylococcus, Bacillus, and Enterococcus were mostly present on the surface of houseflies at the genus level. Additionally, the isolated 32 staphylococcal strains were identified as Staphylococcus sciuri (n = 11), S. saprophyticus (n = 9), S. arlettae (n = 6), S. xylosus (n = 4), S. epidermidis (n = 1) and S. gallinarum (n = 1). tetK, tetM, tetL, ermC, msrAB, and aad6 genes were found to carry by some of the staphylococcal strains. The strains were mostly resistant to oxacillin, penicillin, and erythromycin and three strains were multi-drug resistant. There was a statistical difference between housefly collection places and antibiotic resistance of isolated staphylococci to penicillin G, gentamicin, and erythromycin (p < 0.05). Biofilm test showed that 17 strains were strong biofilm formers, and it plays important role in the transmission of these bacteria on the surface of houseflies. Staphylococcal strains showed extracellular proteolytic and lipolytic activity in 31 and 12 strains, respectively. Closely related species were found in PFGE analysis from different environmental sources. By this study, surface microbiota and carriage of pathogenic staphylococci on the surfaces of houseflies and their virulence properties were elucidated. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Mert Sudagidan, Veli Cengiz Ozalp, Özge Can, Hakan Eligül, Mediha Nur Zafer Yurt, Behiye Busra Tasbasi, Elif Esma Acar, Murat Kavruk, Oner Koçak. Surface microbiota and associated staphylococci of houseflies (Musca domestica) collected from different environmental sources. Microbial pathogenesis. 2022 Mar;164:105439

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PMID: 35139420

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