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This study aimed to assess changes in fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels, time to diabetic retinopathy (DR) and its predictors among type 2 diabetes patients in Ethiopia. An institution-based retrospective follow-up study was conducted at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. The linear mixed effect model and Cox proportional hazard models were fitted separately, and later, the two models were fitted jointly using R software. Variables with a p value < 0.05 were considered significant predictors in the adjusted analysis. The incidence rate of DR was 2 per 100-person year of observation with a median follow-up time of 90.8 months (IQR 63.4). The current value and rate of change in FBS level were significant predictors of time to DR (AHR = 1.35; 95% CI 1.12-1.63) and (AHR = 1.70; 95% CI 1.21-2.39), respectively. Hypertension (AHR = 2.49; 95% CI 1.32-4.66), taking > 1 antidiabetic oral agent (AHR = 4.90; 95% CI 1.07-20.0) and more than 10 years duration (AHR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.46) were predictors of time to DR. This study revealed that the current value of FBS and the rate of FBS change were significantly associated with the time to DR. © 2022. The Author(s).


Sewnet Adem Kebede, Zemenu Tadesse Tessema, Shitaye Alemu Balcha, Tadesse Awoke Ayele. Joint modeling of time to diabetic retinopathy and change in fasting blood sugar among type 2 diabetic patients, Northwest Ethiopia. Scientific reports. 2022 Feb 09;12(1):2236

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PMID: 35140323

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