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    Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees (AP) is widely used in most Asian and some Western countries. However, its main effects and underlying pharmacological mechanism have not been thoroughly characterized, and its safety has not been sufficiently investigated. The present study aimed to predict and visualize the potential targets and pathways, clarify the main pharmacological effects, and investigate the toxicological properties of AP extract (APE). First, ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was performed to directly predict AP's therapeutic targets and pathways; main pharmacological effects of AP were speculated based on IPA results and confirmed by pharmacodynamics experiments. Rodent toxicity studies were then performed through administration of a single dose of 10 g/kg or daily doses of 2, 1, or 0.5 g/kg for 8 weeks to evaluate the safety of APE, and a similar repeated-dose study was performed using dogs with doses equal to half of the above-mentioned doses. Thus, repeated-dose toxicity studies were performed with both rodents and nonrodents. The IPA analysis and confirmatory pharmacodynamics experiments revealed that the main pharmacological effect of APE was anti-inflammation, which might be achieved by influencing various targets (e.g., AR, AKT, and BAX) and pathways (IL-8). In the single-dose toxicity test, no death or abnormal consequences were observed, and maximum tolerated dose of APE was 10 g/kg. Results from the repeated-dose toxicity tests did not reveal any obvious toxic effects from the repeated daily intragastric administration of APE at 1 g/kg for 8 weeks. In conclusion, APE at a dose of 1 g/kg did not exert any adverse effects, and administration of APE could be beneficial for the inflammatory diseases' treatment. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees is a plant that exerts clearing and detoxification effects and is widely used around the world, but a comprehensive analysis of its efficacy and safety is needed. © 2022 Institute of Food Technologists®.

    Citation

    Jingzhuo Tian, Chunying Li, Jing Meng, Lianmei Wang, Yan Tong, Yong Zhao, Yan Yi, Yushi Zhang, Zhong Xian, Chen Pan, Suyan Liu, Jiayin Han, Aihua Liang. Pharmacological effects and safety of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees. Journal of food science. 2022 Mar;87(3):1319-1330

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    PMID: 35166368

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