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    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a prevalent condition that confers substantial morbidity and mortality and remains underdiagnosed as well as undertreated in the overall population. Although PAD prevalence is similar or higher in women compared with men, associations of traditional and nontraditional risk factors with PAD and clinical manifestations of PAD differ by sex and may contribute to delayed or lack of diagnosis in women. Such sex-based differences in the manifestation of PAD may arise from sexual dimorphism in the vascular substrate in health as well as sex variation in the responses to vascular stressors. Despite the availability of proven therapies for improving symptoms and reducing risk of ischemic cardiovascular and limb events among patients with diagnosed PAD, important sex differences in treatment and outcomes have been observed. We provide an overview of current knowledge regarding sex differences in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of PAD.


    Maria Pabon, Susan Cheng, S Elissa Altin, Sanjum S Sethi, Michael D Nelson, Kerrie L Moreau, Naomi Hamburg, Connie N Hess. Sex Differences in Peripheral Artery Disease. Circulation research. 2022 Feb 18;130(4):496-511

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    PMID: 35175843

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